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Τετάρτη, 19 Μαρτίου 2014

Histoire des sciences médicales

1. Hist Sci Med. 2012 Apr-Jun;46(2):175-81.

[Contributions of radiology to surgery. A history older than a century].

[Article in French]

Van Tiggelen R.

Author information: 
Hôpital Militaire Reine Astrid, Rue Bruyn, 1120 Bruxelles.

The discovery of X rays was immediately highly valued by all the surgeons. At its
beginnings, radiology only allowed to objectivize the lesions of the bones and to
localize the radio-opaque foreign bodies. WWI materialized this synergy and after
the conflict every hospital had to have a radiological department. By slow and
progressive technological advances, radiology managed to visualize other organs. 
The two world wars generated new methods permitting the diagnosis of otherwise
unsuspected lesions. Finally, after the demonstration of the anatomy,
radiological research started to investigate the function of the organs. A brief 
look of the major steps of this collaboration shall be topic of this talk.

PMID: 23038871  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2. Hist Sci Med. 2012 Apr-Jun;46(2):163-74.

[Augustin Cabanès (1862-1928). The reasons of a missed appointment with

[Article in French]

Hutin JF.

On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of Augustin Cabanès' birth (1862-1928), 
we analyse the very controversial contributions of the author of the Histoire
èclairée par la clinique--but also of many works and articles--to the history of 
medicine and to historical medicine.

PMID: 23038870  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3. Hist Sci Med. 2012 Apr-Jun;46(2):151-62.

[The art of improvising. The practice of medico-legal autopsies in the 19th

[Article in French]

Menenteau S.

Author information: 

Murder is perpetrated, suicide is committed and lethal accidents happen
everywhere, even in the heart of the French country. In the 19th century, law
often appealed to the lights of experts. During criminal investigation,
improvisation and men's adaptation were important, although forensic autopsy was 
official and necessary. Sometimes the magistrates appealed to young people, not
used to that kind of reports, who could only remind some bits of the forensic
courses they had followed when they were students. As for the specialists, the
circumstances often led them to examine--as Baudelaire would say--the "decaying
carcass," in a dark and suffocating ruined house, on the kitchen table, and with 
a simple scapel.

PMID: 23038869  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4. Hist Sci Med. 2012 Apr-Jun;46(2):145-50.

[The Firmin case (1794-1799) and the absence of crime legislation on "insanity"
during the French Revolution].

[Article in French]

Mangin-Lazarus C.

Examining the so-called "affaire Firmin" (1794-1799), the author wonders about
the reason (idealistic or political) for the lack a special law on insanity
defense during the French revolution, and she tries to find a link the present
state of the law.

PMID: 23038868  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5. Hist Sci Med. 2012 Apr-Jun;46(2):133-44.

[From sworn physicians at the Châtelet de Paris to forensic physicians. The birth
of a professionalization (1692-1801)].

[Article in French]

Coquillard I.

The phrase 'Forensic Medicine' appeared in 1777. Previously the notion was mixed 
up with medical science and limited to record the state of a desecrate or a dead 
body. Medical doctors and surgeons were in charge of writing the reports.
Forensic medicine became institutionalized since 1750. The first treatise of
forensic medicine was written by the chairman of Forensic Medicine at the Health 
School in Paris, Paul Augustin Mahon de la Houssaye about its specific methods.
He contributed to create a link between medicine and law so as to let the
Forensic Scientist take an active part in public health policy.

PMID: 23038867  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6. Hist Sci Med. 2012 Apr-Jun;46(2):125-31.

[Traffic accidents during the Roman empire: to go to the doctor o to the god?].

[Article in French]

Gourevitch D.

A few pages by Galen and an inscription from Roman Egypt testify to two
psychological attitudes towards diseases and accidents: either you feel
responsible and go to the doctor, or you think you are in the hands of some god.

PMID: 23038866  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7. Hist Sci Med. 2012 Apr-Jun;46(2):117-24.

[The seven wounds Ernst Jünger at the time of the Great War. Reflection of the
health service of the imperial army].

[Article in French]

Ségal A, Ferrandis JJ.

Thanks to Ernt Junger's amazing career--and despite his many injuries--we have a 
great view of the German Imperial Army's sanitary corps. This can be observed
from the actions of the stretcher-bearers to German hospitals in general, and
with the organization of their sanitary transport, as well as their
medico-surgical concerns. We can see, therefore, that very few differences
existed with the French medico-surgical structures except for the fact that,from 
the very beginning, Imperial medical warfare was able to adjust to the changes
from field to trench situations. Thanks to its adaptable system of triage, and
its ability to offer the most coherent medico-surgical choices and options, it
was possible to save time. It enabled surgical actions in places that were close 
to the battlefield. Furthermore, we have been able to find out about the personal
experience of an exceptional 20th century writer who later became a great
European citizen.

PMID: 23038865  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8. Hist Sci Med. 2012 Apr-Jun;46(2):111-6.

[History of prostatic adenomectomy].

[Article in French]

Houlgatte A.

Author information: 
Clinique d'urologie, Hôpital du Val-de-Grâce.

Treatment of the prostate hypertrophy has long been limited to that of its
complications and particularly to retention linked with congestion of this gland.
The different operating techniques appear only in the 19th century in parallel
with a better knowledge in the pathogenesis of this gland; the different schools 
in urology competing with various approaches from perinea to hypogastria surgery.
The 21st century and its innovating technologies bring in a new era where the
laser and coeliosurgery will find their respective place.

PMID: 23038864  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9. Hist Sci Med. 2012 Apr-Jun;46(2):95-110.

[The French maritime health police in the 19th century].

[Article in French]

Hillemand B.

The French law of 1822 created a homogeneous maritime health police all along the
French coastline. Noteworthy in many respects, it was however very binding since 
it included some penalties of an extraordinary harshness as hard labour or even
death. It was first disputed by those against the theory of contagion and the
maritime and commercial circles, but subsequently it became overtaken by
scientific knowledge despite numerous facilities and some important remodelling
decrees were decided, one of them in 1876 just before the Pasteur revolution and 
another in 1896. The aim was then not only to prevent, epidemics (plague,
cholera, yellow fever) crossing the borders of the national country, but also to 
prevent them from spreading out of their original cradles. Later it was the
beginning of the sanitary international cooperation with the training of special 
eastern practitioners who could take sanitary precautions close to the sources of

PMID: 23038863  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10. Hist Sci Med. 2012 Apr-Jun;46(2):89-93.

[Doctor Péan teaching at the Saint-Louis hospital its discovery of vessel
clamping, by Henri Gervex (1852-1929)].

[Article in French]

Gavoille A(1), Bonnichon P.

Author information: 
(1)Musée Marmottan--Monet, 2, rue Bailly, 75016 Paris.

The oil painting by Gervex Avant l'opération is analysed as far as art-history in
general is concerned, and also for a more precise history of medical portraiture.

PMID: 23038862  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11. Hist Sci Med. 2012 Jan-Mar;46(1):67-76.

[Wouter van Doeveren (1730-1783) professor of practical medicine, obstetrics and 

[Article in French]

Van Heiningen TW.

Between September 1752 and July 1753, Wouter van Doeveren, a student of Gaubius, 
Albinus and Winter at Leyden University, studied, together with a couple of
friends at various Paris hospitals in order to improve his skills in the fields
of surgery and obstetrics. After his return to Leyden, he took his doctor's
degree in medicine and started his practice in that town. In 1754 he was
appointed professor of medicine at Groningen University. In 1770 he was appointed
professor of theoretical and practical medicine at Leyden University. He held
that office until his death on 31 December 1783. He was a most appreciated
foreign member of the Société Royale de Médecine (Paris) and of the Royal Society
of Medicine (Edinburgh). He succeeded in improving his medical skills, by doing
thorough research in the fields of pathological anatomy and teratology. He laid
the foundations for national healthcare regulations for the United Provinces.

PMID: 22586820  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12. Hist Sci Med. 2012 Jan-Mar;46(1):55-65.

[The doctor and the consul. Relations between Galen and Flavius Boethos under
Marcus Aurelius].

[Article in French]

Gourevitch D.

The author describes the rich relationship between young Galen, just arrived in
Rome from his native Minor Asia, and Flavius Boethos a consul suffectus who was
to become the governor of Syria, and asked him to cure his wife and then their
son, Cyrillos. Although very famous, Galen who never became a Roman citizen,
needed such a friend and social mentor.

PMID: 22586819  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13. Hist Sci Med. 2012 Jan-Mar;46(1):45-53.

[Esquirol and dementia].

[Article in French]

Albou P.

Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol (1772-1840), after Pinel (1745-1826), stated
precisely the symptoms of dementia according to the new medical definition of the
word: a disease including all the states of intellectual weakness for various
reasons. For example Esquirol clearly distinguished dementia from mania--that is 
to say our present psychoses--, and also from mental deficiency. In the same time
Esquirol became more and more conscious, from 1814 (cf. his contributions to the 
Dictionnaire des sciences médicales, in 58 volumes, dir. Panckoucke) and 1838
(his famous work Des maladies mentales), of the very nature of senile insanity
compared with other kinds of dementia.

PMID: 22586818  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14. Hist Sci Med. 2012 Jan-Mar;46(1):35-44.

[The humanitarian work of France in the Sahara. The Health Service of the army in
the territories of Southern Algeria (1900-1976].

[Article in French]

Savelli A.

Medical assistance to the Saharian populations (1900-1976) is viewed through its 
organization. The management of the Health Service in the Southern Territories,
doctors, nursing staff, medical districts, centred on infirmary-hospitals and
rural first-aid posts. We insist on the everrising free consultations and the
care to sick and wounded patients in infirmaries; the fight against epidemics and
social scourges. Then on French medical mission from 1963 to 1976, and on the
humanitarian work by the Health Service throughout the five continents.

PMID: 22586817  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15. Hist Sci Med. 2012 Jan-Mar;46(1):19-30.

[The medical literature of the Egyptian campaign].

[Article in French]

Hutin JF.

Bonaparte's Egyptian Campaign (1798 - 1801), like all other episodes from the
Napoleonic era, gave rise to an extensive literature on the subject, but most of 
all a significant medical literature. This fact is due to many reasons:--an
important health service for this expeditionary corps of more than 36.000 men,
with two main figures at its hea, Desgenettes and Larrey--but also with valuable 
subordinates like Assalini, Savaresi, Balme, Pugnet or Barbès.--A Commission for 
Science and Art, of which a few doctors and surgeons were members, but most of
all pharmacists like Boudet or Rouyer--The presence in the field of Ludwig Frank,
the nephew of the famous Johann Peter Frank.--The creation in Cairo of an
Egyptian Institute and the publication of the masterly Description of Egypt and
the establishment of printing houses.--The emergence of the myth of the Orient
and its mysteries.--An extensive array of indigenous pathologies, which is
characteristic of those countries. For instance: plague, dysentery, yellow fever,
Egyptian ophthalmia, as well as more common diseases like tetanus, scurvy or
venereal diseases. The main medical works that cover this period and its
pathologies are skimmed.

PMID: 22586816  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Oct-Dec;45(4):415-26.

[Strasbourg, capital of mycosis fungoides research from 1919 to 1964].

[Article in French]

Cribier B.

Author information: 
Clinique Dermatologique, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 67091 Strasbourg 

Both "Pautrier microabscesses" and "Woringer-Kolopp disease" terms make reference
to two professors of dermatology of the Faculty of Medicine in Strasbourg. These 
eponyms, and especially that of Pautrier, are universally used by pathologists
throughout the world. Their origin is amazing. Louis Marie Pautrier (1876-1958)
is indeed not the father of the microabscesses which are designed by his name.
This pathognomonic image of mycosisfungoides was in fact described by Jean Darier
in 1889. It is probably due to the close bonds between Pautrier and his
colleagues in New York if his name has been attached erroneously for two reasons 
to this histological sign, since abscesses contain by definition
polymorphonuclear leucocytes and not lymphocytes. Pautrier was between 1919 and
1958 one of the major French dermatologists having a passion for granulomatoses
and mycosis fungoides. His student Frédéric Woringer (1903-1964) published in
1939 the clinical case of a mysterious affection, which he had interpreted as a
case of Paget disease. It is only after his death that this characteristic entity
has been called Woringer-Kolopp disease. Kolopp was a dermatologist with private 
practice in Metz and addressed the biopsy of the princeps case to Strasbourg.
This rare affection is considered today as an entity within the spectrum of
epidermotropic T lymphomas, among which mycosis fungoides is the major entity.

PMID: 22400480  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Oct-Dec;45(4):403-14.

[Japanese students and assistants of the medical faculty of Strasbourg from 1872 
to 1918].

[Article in French]

Le Minor JM(1), Richert JB.

Author information: 
(1)Institut d'Anatomie Normale, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Strasbourg, 67085
Strasbourg Cedex.

After the annexation of Alsace by Germany, ratified by the treatise of Versailles
in January 1871, a new large-scale university was created in Strasbourg by the
German authorities. It was inaugurated the 1st of May 1872, named
Kaiser-Wilhelms-Universität from 1877, and existed until the return of Alsace to 
France in 1918. Due to its prestige, this university rapidly attracted foreign
students (i.e. nor Alsation nor German, representing the majority). Among those, 
48 Japanese students were registered at the Faculty of Medicine between 1872 and 
1918, and moreover one assistant, and in particular (by chronological order of
first registration): Kenji Osawa (1878-1882), Yoshikiyo Koganei (1882-1883),
Tsukasa Hirota (1885-1888), Masunosuke Hirayama (1889-1890), Trasaburo Araki
(1889-1893), Tatsukichi Irisawa (1890-1892), Katsutake Azuma (1898-1899), Akira
Fujinami (1898-1899), Toshijiro Chiba (1899-1900), Junichi Mochizuki (1899-1900),
Buntaro Adachi (1899-1903), Haruo Hayashi (1903-1904), Ryokichi Inada
(1904-1905), Takaoki Sasaki (1905-1906), Kaoru Aoki (1908-1913), and Jujiro Honda
(1910-1911), who had then a prestigious universitary career in Japan. Among these
48 students, at least 7 realized their dissertation for the doctorate of medicine
in Strasbourg (Osawa 1882, Maki 1884, Takahashi 1887, Mayeda 1890, Araki 1891,
Matsuyama 1898, Ito 1899).

PMID: 22400479  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Oct-Dec;45(4):391-401.

[Stories of the scientific travels between Strasbourg and Germany in the 19th

[Article in French]

Durand de Bousingen D.

Author information: 
Bureau 2133, Conseil de l'Europe, 67075 Strasbourg Cedex.

Appeared in the 19th century, the vogue of the scientific travellings and of the 
medical congresses led numerous physicians to discover the medical institutions
of European countries. Many Alsatian physicians went to the discovery of the
medicine and of the hospitals in Germany and central Europa, and then published
their travel stories. The German physicians were numerous to go to Paris, and
some of them went through Strasbourg to study the medical institutions. From
various accounts, the view of physicians from Strasbourg of the Germanic medicine
and the German view of the medicine in Strasbourg are presented: in both cases,
these impressions illustrate the role of a bridge between France and Germany
traditionally played by the Faculty of Medicine in Strasbourg.

PMID: 22400478  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Oct-Dec;45(4):381-90.

[The Chair of the medical chemistry department at the Faculty of Medicine and the
Chair of chemistry at the School of Pharmacy of Strasbourg (1794-1871)].

[Article in French]

Pabst JY.

Author information: 
Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, 74 route du Rhin, BP 60024, 67401
Illkirch Cedex.

Strasbourg occupied during the 19th century a privileged place in chemistry, as
well in education as in research, and that in particular in three institutions
created after the dissolution of the old University during the French Revolution:
the Faculty of Sciences, the School then Faculty of Medicine created in 1794, and
the School of Pharmacy created in 1804. In 1871, Alsace was annexed by Germany.
The chair of medical chemistry in the Faculty of Medicine was successively
occupied by: Pierre François Nicolas (1743-1816) in 1794-1795, Frédéric Louis
Ehrmann (1741-1801) from 1796 to 1798, Gabriel Masuyer (1761-1849) from 1798 to
1838, and Amédée Cailliot (1805-1884) from 1838 to 1871. The chair of chemistry
in the School of Pharmacy was successively occupied by: Louis Hecht
(1771-1857)from 1804 to 1835, Jean François Persoz (1805-1868) from 1835 to 1852,
Adrien Loir (1816-1899) from 1852 to 1855, Charles Frédéric Gerhardt and Eugène
Théodore Jacquemin (1828-1909) from 1856 to 1871.

PMID: 22400477  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Oct-Dec;45(4):369-79.

[From Paris to Strasbourgh: the development of orthopedic and gymnastic clinics
(first half of the 19th century)].

[Article in French]

Quin G(1), Monet J.

Author information: 
(1)Institut des Sciences du Sport de l'Université de Lausanne, Faculté des Sciences 
Sociales et Politiques, Université de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne.

In this contribution, we try to outline a history of the rise of orthopaedic and 
gymnastic clinics from 1820 to 1860 in France, and particularly in Paris. These
clinics are located at the crossroads of several social processes of the 19th
century: the structuring of a medical field (observed through specialization,
professionalization, etc.), physical exercises legitimating process or the
development of a medical interest for the female body. Several types of interests
and issues--epistemological, educational, social, professional or symbolic--cross
around those clinics and place them as major elements in the constitution of a
history of medical engagement in the production of physical education during the 
nineteenth century. Divided in two parts, our presentation will try to highlight 
various elements of a history of those clinics' rise: their directors, a
geography of the implantation in Paris and a description of their customers,
looking at the various educational and rehabilitative methodologies implemented
in the different clinics.

PMID: 22400476  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Oct-Dec;45(4):359-68.

[French faculty of the imperial University of Vilnius in the beginning of the
19th century].

[Article in French]

Edel P.

Known under the name of Vilna at the beginning of the 19th century, Vilnius
(today the capital of Lithuania) was then a fast-expanding city, at a crossroads 
of sciences and arts in Europe. The mainspring of this influence was indisputably
its University, the first in Russia considering the number of students, above
those of Dorpat (today Tartu) and Moscow. When the University was secularized in 
1773, among the new disciplines introduced, was natural history. It was thus
decided to create a Collegium medicum. Bishop Massalski, as president of the
Commission of National Education, put his personal physician, the French Nicolas 
Regnier (1723-1800), a native of Strasbourg, in charge of the creation of this
school and nominated him in 1775 to the post of professor of anatomy and surgery.
Nicolas Regnier was thus the first of the seven physicians originating from
France who marked the expansion of the Faculty of Medicine in Vilnius with
Jacques Briotet (1746-1819), Jean Emmanuel Gilibert (1741-1814), Auguste Bécu
(1771-1824), Jean Pierre Frank (1745-1821), Joseph Frank (1771-1841), and Louis
Henri Bojanus (1776-1827).

PMID: 22400475  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Oct-Dec;45(4):351-7.

[The health of cardinal Gaston de Rohan. The sickness, the diplomat in the noble 
class of the 17th century?].

[Article in French]

Muller C.

Author information: 
Institut d'Histoire d'Alsace, Université de Strasbourg, Palais Universitaire, 9
place de l'Université, 67000 Strasbourg.

The few elements concerning health and medicine discovered during the exhaustive 
study of the numerous documents evoking the Rohan family are presented here. They
concern essentially Gaston de Rohan (1674-1749). Born in Paris the 27th of June
1674, son of François de Rohan, Prince of Soubise, lieutenant-general of the
French royal army, and of Anne Julienne de Rohan-Chabot, Gaston de Rohan was
elected canon of the great-chapter in Strasbourg in 1690, then coadjutor of the
Prince-bishop of Strasbourg in 1701. He became Prince-bishop of Strasbourg in
1704 and cardinal in 1712. He died in Paris the 19th of July 1749. The "gout" of 
the cardinal is omnipresent in the life of this man of the Church. Moreover, gout
imposes upon the life of this statesman, preventing him from going to a given
place which doesn't fill him with enthusiasm. His gout also allows to impose
etiquette, since it obliges to go at the cardinal place, who receives. The
illness becomes non diplomatic, but diplomacy.

PMID: 22400474  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Oct-Dec;45(4):341-9.

[Surgical instruments and the emblems of Alsatien craftsmen and the archives of
Obernai (16th-17th centuries)].

[Article in French]

Muller C.

Author information: 
Archives de la Ville d'Obernai, Mairie d'Obernai, 67210 Obernai.

This study presents some original data concerning the instruments used by
Alsatian surgeons-barbers from the 16th to the 18th century. Emblems of
professions frequently appear on private houses in Alsace, and 35 emblems of
surgeons-barbers have been discovered; six, particularly chararacteristic, are
analysed here (Soultz 1568, Marlenheim 1581, Sainte-Croix-en-Plaine 1587, Rosheim
1681, Rosheim 1733, and Wasselonne 1738). The razor (Schermesser), the lancet
(Lanzette), and the "flame" (Lasseisen, Fliete) are the most frequently
represented instruments. Unpublished inventories after death also bring
instructive data and in particular those of the barbers Hans Artz of Molsheim
(1597) and Jacob Pflieger of Obernai (c. 1608-1609). At last, are evoked
unpublished mentions concerning two barbers originating from Obernai who
exercised in Eastern Europe (Sebald Korn around 1583, and Johannes Baur around

PMID: 22400473  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Oct-Dec;45(4):329-40.

[The influence of anatomical treaties on the works of Wendel Dietterlin and his
successors in the second half of the 16th century].

[Article in French]

Gampp A.

Author information: 
Universität Basel, St. Alban-Graben 8, Postfach, CH-4010 Basel, Suisse.

In 1543 in Basel, Johannes Oporinus published one of the most famous treatises in
the history of anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius. The book 
was an immediate success all over Europe, especially in the Upper Rhine region.
In Strasbourg, Walter Ryff (Gualterius Rivius) was responsible for an early copy;
others followed, as for example Felix Platter in Basel in 1581. One of the
novelties of all these books consisted in the fact that for the first time the
human body was dissected into its smallest units. Anatomical elements such as the
opened thorax, the vertebral column, the kidney sectionned, or the laryngeal
cartilages apparently stimulated an artist of the late 16th century in the same
geographical region: Wendel Dietterlin (c.1550-1599) who principally worked in
Strasbourg and introduced these elements into his treatise on architecture as
architectural ornaments. This seems to be the first instance of a transfer of
motifs from human anatomy to architecture. From this time on, the transfer
reappeared in some works until William Hogarth's era in the 18th century.

PMID: 22400472  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Oct-Dec;45(4):321-8.

[The Anatomy Institutions of Jean Guinter d'Andernach (1487-1574), and André
Vésale (1514-1564). ].

[Article in French]

Drizenko A.

Author information: 
Laboratoire d'anatomie, Faculté de médecine Henri Warembourg, 59045 Lille Cedex.

The text of the Anatomical Institutions of Johann Guinter von Andernach, in its
original version, was published almost simultaneously in Paris and Basel in 1536.
Guinter was then in his fiftieth year, and Andreas Vesalius who was his student
in Paris between 1533 ans 1536, was only twenty-two years old. His studies being 
finished in Leuven and his thesis being published for the first edition in Leuven
in February 1537, and for the second in Basel in March 1537, Vesalius went to
Padua where he was named professor of anatomy and surgery. Vesalius, besides the 
reasons put forward in his dedicatory lettre to Johann Armenterianus, tried to
have rapidly printed documents for his students. He published in this way in
April 1538 the engraved version of the great plates which he had mostly drawn and
used to support his demonstrations during sessions of dissection. For the
accompanying text, he choosed the handbook of his Master Guinter von Andernach
which he decided to edit incorporating modifications and which he published in
Venice in 1538 by D. Bernardinus. The modifications made by Vesalius on the
Guinter's text can be classified in several headings: minor adjustments,
additions of anatomical comments, additions corroborating traditional physiology,
and anecdotes peppering the text.

PMID: 22400471  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

26. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Oct-Dec;45(4):315-20.

[The Essenes and medicine].

[Article in French]

Kottek S.

The Essenes were a Jewish sect, which flourished around the first century. We
have limited our study to hygienic and medical aspects, as documented in the
works of Josephus Flavius, Philo of Alexandria, and Pliny the Elder; Josephus and
Philo were personally in contact with these sectarian Jews. We have described the
regimen of life of these communities, who lived in strictly organised fashion,
their meals taken in common, their bathing in cold water, their clothing, the
Sabbath rest, the lavatories, and more. Most Essenes remained single, they
adopted however small children, and educated them in accordance to their
principles. There was no private property, but old people and sick residents were
taken care of by the community. The Essenes, as well as the Therapeuts described 
by Philo, were knowledgeable in medical lore, they treasured old books and
studied the virtues of medicinal plants. There is no clear-cut consensus whether 
the Essenes, the Therapeuts, and the Qumran residents were one and the same sect,
or whether they were similar sub-sects. The calm, strictly regulated and frugal
way of life of the Essenes enabled them to attain old age, often beyond 100

PMID: 22400470  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Jul-Sep;45(3):295-301.

[Medicinal plants and symbols in the medieval mystic altarpiece].

[Article in French]

Fischer LP(1), Verilhac R, Ferrandis JJ, Trépardoux F.

Author information: 
(1)Laboratoire d'Anatomie, Faculté de médecine Lyon-Est, 8, av. Rockefeller, 69008

The medieval mystic altarpiece towers above the altar table. It is linked to the 
evocation of a religious mystery beyond our faculty of reasoning. Symbolism of an
enclosed garden evokes the image of the Heavenly Garden isolated by a wall from
the rest of earthly world. In this mystic chiefly Rhenan altarpiece the enclosed 
garden is that of Virgin Mary who in the Middle Ages was likened to the spouse in
the song of songs. The Blessed Virgin is painted with flowers, lily, rose,
violet, lily of the valley. Most of these are medicinal plants in order to
implore a faith healing for the believers. All in all about fifty plants are
showed on Rhenan altarpieces and on 14th century mystic altarpieces almost
contemporary of Issenheim's altarpiece, some Italian, some Rhenan.

PMID: 22073760  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Jul-Sep;45(3):285-94.

[The intervention of the Royal College of Medicine in Nancy in the regulation of 
pharmaceutical activity].

[Article in French]

Labrude P.

Created in 1752 the Royal College of Medicine in Nancy constituted an institution
with extended powers, particularly in sanitary policy and pharmaceutical
activity. After explaining the rules of the College, the paper describes with
examples its participation to the examinations of pharmacy pupils and their
sustaining of "Conclusions de pharmacie et de chymie", to the delivery of drugs
and to the fight against charlatanry and prohibited activity of pharmacy. From
its creating to its disparition in 1793 by order of the government, the Royal
College of Medicine worked remarkably, and the rules worked up during the forty
years of its life appear to be of a great modernity.

PMID: 22073759  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

29. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Jul-Sep;45(3):275-83.

[The Piscine Probatica, a painted canvas of the Hotel-Dieu of Rheims,
documentation of an epidemic at the end of the 15th century].

[Article in French]

Ségal A.

Author information: 

The Piscina Probatica theme is the highly distinctive iconography in an
impressive painted canvas from the ancient Rheims hôtel-Dieu, dating back to the 
late 15th or early 16th century. In the first place, it is interesting to note
that the actual site of the pool has been located, so that archaeological
findings bring confirmation to testament scriptures. Through the choice of the
painted-canvas medium, and thanks to his great pictorial skill, the anonymous
Rheims artist has given us a document of exceptional value, concerning the signs 
and symptoms of an illness which wrought havoc in the Rheims area in his own
lifetime, namely ignis plaga or "mal des ardents". Other great artists of the
same period, such as J. Bosch, have testified to the horror of the illness. As a 
matter-of-fact, the illness has been fully documented, from the 17th century
onwards, and the medical expert H.A. Tessier, also acting as an agricultural
expert, has demonstrated that ergotized rye is responsible for the fatal
condition known as ergotism, and for the heavy toll it has levied on human lives 
in the course of centuries.

PMID: 22073758  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Jul-Sep;45(3):265-74.

[The unicorn and the unicorn horn among apothecaries and physicians].

[Article in French]

Fischer LP(1), Cossu Ferra Fischer V.

Author information: 
(1)Laboratoire d'anatomie, Faculté de médecine Lyon-Est, 8, av. Rockefeller, 69008

In the 4th century A.D. the first unicorn was shown as a little horse with a
twisted horn and was completely different from the Oriental one described by
Marco Polo. The new unicorn appeared during the 4th century A.D. in Alexandria.
This animal enamoured of purity was used as a Christian symbol of purity and
sacrifice and adornment of churches like in Lyons in the 13th century. In the
15th & 17th centuries the unicorn was found again in famous tapestries like La
Dame B la Licorne as it meant courage, speed and purity. Since the 6th century
the powder of unicorn horn was used as a medicine or a drug against poisoning.
Depictions of unicorn can be found in chemist's signs, engravings or paintings
until the 19th century.

PMID: 22073757  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Jul-Sep;45(3):257-64.

[The Ethics and Deontology division of the French National Council of Medical
Doctors, eight years of activity, 1993-2001].

[Article in French]

Hoerni B.

Author information: 

The activity of the division of Ethics and deontology of the French National
council of medical doctors is analysed by its former president (1993-2001). Among
a lot of topics, a new version of the professionnal Code of deontology and
patients' information were the main subjects of reflection and action.

PMID: 22073756  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Jul-Sep;45(3):249-56.

[History of phrenology].

[Article in French]

Renner C.

Author information: 

Gall & his supporters had intuition that brain was made up with functional areas 
but they did not correctly place them. This false science brought nothing to
medicine but it left its mark on 19th century literature. However it contributed 
to introducing the notion of mitigating circumstances in the legal proceeding and
set up basis of professional recruitment. It left plenty of technical gears:
crane casting, china busts, phrenological penholders, knobs, craniological
snuffboxes and a lot of geographic maps of the skull bumps.

PMID: 22073755  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Jul-Sep;45(3):239-48.

[Maternal imagination and congenital malformations].

[Article in French]

Van Heiningen TW.

Since antiquity philosophers and scientists tried to explain the cause of
congenital malformations. In early modern medicine maternal imagination was
largely accepted as their true cause, This concept was rejected by Blondel, a
London physician. Around 1750 Wolff introduced the Hemmungsbildung as the cause
of congenital malformations, a concept adopted in 1781 by Blumenbach. Later on
Soemmerring (1784), Crichton (1785) and Meckel the younger adopted Blumenbach's
concept. In 1824 Suringar further developed it. More and more the excessive
development of fetal blood vessels or nerves was rejected as a possible cause,
although from time to time these ideas were adopted again. In the early 1800s
Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1811) and Vrolik (1817) developed a
classification of monstra. These attempts urged Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire
(Etienne's son) and Vrolik the younger (Gerard's son) to develop it further.
Nevertheless, around 1840 Vrolik had to admit that although we are well acqainted
with the various malformations, we are still ignorant of the primary cause of
these phenomena. Meanwhile the dispute between the adherents of the theory of
preformation and those who had adopted the concept of epigenesis exercised many
minds. In the second half of the eighteenth century the latter theory became more
and more adopted and this fact cleared the way for the ideas introduced by Wolff 
and Blumenbach, because it was consistent with the idea of a gradual development 
of fetal structures.

PMID: 22073754  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Jul-Sep;45(3):229-38.

[Who did the first arterial ligation?].

[Article in French]

Wyplosz J.

It is usual to bestow on Ambroise Paré the discovery of arterial ligation. He
himself substantiates this assumption describing how he discovered it on the
battlefield. But the survey of the surgical literature lets us see that in
France, Guy de Chauliac and Henri de Mondeville had already described it and
performed it. And, before them, the Italian surgeons of the 13th and 12th
centuries. It was also well known by the Arab speaking surgeons who detained the 
translations of the Greek medical authors of the Antiquity. And indeed the
description is to be found in Paul ofAegina and Oribasius. But it is in Celsus's 
De re medica that we find the first description. It may be reasonably assumed
that it is much oldest.

PMID: 22073753  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Apr-Jun;45(2):187-95.

[Operating rooms during the second half of the 20th century and its change with
surgical advances].

[Article in French]

Steimle RH.

Author information: 

With the rise of new specialities after the World War, the number of OP rooms
increases. They became gathered on the basement of buildings near the central
sterilisation. To enter the OP room, everyone passes through the dressing "sas". 
"Slippers", uniforms, gloves and many supplies are now for single-use.
Electrified operating tables with their own accessories became very useful. Air
conditioning is appreciated too in our countries. The operating microscope for
ORL, ophthalmology and neurosurgery is used by every one. In cardiology the
coronary revascularisation being common stuff, cardiac transplantation (1967) and
open-heart surgery received special attention. Vascular surgeons are dedicated to
arteritiden, implants, and aortic aneurysms. Urology is focused on renal
transplants (since 1959), and more recently on lithotrity and coelioscopic
prostatectomy. The coeliosurgery conquered the abdominal pathology and the
endoscopic techniques became current. In neurosurgery, stereotaxy to treat
parkinson's disease is not used so often since Levodopa exists. But it is still
useful to implant brain-stimulating electrodes for refractory parkinson's cases, 
some other dyskinesias, mental troubles or epilepsies. The neuronavigation
brought new possibilities. At century's end, ambulatory surgery reduces surgical 
costs. Bigger and multidisciplinary theatres are now preferred. The open-heart
surgery assisted by computer and robotics is evolving. Finally, we recall OP room
accidents, which are not directly dealing with the operation.

PMID: 21936219  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Apr-Jun;45(2):175-82.

[The great anatomist Miltiadès Papamiltiadès (1907-1987). One of the founders of 
Greek cytology].

[Article in French]

Androutsos G, Karamanou M.

The eminent Greek anatomist professor Miltiades Papamiltiades contributed
considerably to the study of lymphatic system and to the development of a new
staining technique in exfoliative cytology. Born Greek and French in spirit, his 
work written in French language and scattered in articles, communications and
notes contributed to the propagation of French medical thought and to the
Hellenic-French friendship.

PMID: 21936218  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Apr-Jun;45(2):165-73.

[Medicine and physical recovery. The care of fatigue in the 18th Century].

[Article in French]

Seignan G.

When in the 18th century, physicians became interested in people facing
physically-demanding work, they founded their advice and warnings on theoretical 
models of tiredness and body weariness. These models refer to the elimination of 
"animal spirits", a substance convoyed by our nerves to contract muscles, to
wearing down of solids destruction of body or else inertia of fluids which
created weariness due to the blood stasis in the veins. Basing itself on these
theories, medicine, helped by physiology in its considerations, intends thus to
restore physical strengths. In this way, they put in place a therapy, which makes
much of the correct functioning of the human machine whose outlines have been
clearly specified.

PMID: 21936217  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Apr-Jun;45(2):155-64.

[Diagnostic references in osteo-archeology. The contribution of historical
medical data].

[Article in French]

Charon P.

Some examples of anatomo-radio-clinical (or medico-historical) collation, studied
in the Dupuytren Museum of Paris, among osteoplastic conditions, including
hyperostosis frontalis interna, fibrous dysplasia of bone, osteochondromas,
angioma of bone and osteosarcomas, demonstrate how that triad allows to
constitute more secure guidelines for the archaeologist who have not clinical
data at his disposal. So, they encourage to support the defence and maintenance
actions of such anatomico-pathological museums.

PMID: 21936216  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Apr-Jun;45(2):149-54.

[The collection of medical works attributed to Cleopatra in the M.D. Grmek fund
deposited at the IMEC].

[Article in French]

Marganne MH.

After describing the dossier of the medical works attributed to Cleopatra in the 
MD. Grmek fund deposited at IMEC (Institut Mémoires de l'Edition Contemporaine,
Abbaye d'Ardenne, Saint-Germain-la-Blanche-Herbe, near Caen), this paper reports 
some recent papyrological discoveries (P. Oxy. 71.4809, third century AD, and P. 
Berol. inv. 25239, BC 33), as well as some new studies in the field over the past
ten years, and presents the project of the Centre de Documentation de Papyrologie
Littiraire (CEDOPAL, University of Liège) for an edition of the fragments of
Cleopatra's Kosmetikon.

PMID: 21936215  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

40. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Apr-Jun;45(2):131-45.

[Frederic Dubois D'Amiens, physician-philosopher. An example of the thought of
the Royal Society of Medicine of Bordeaux in 1830].

[Article in French]

Klein A.

Author information: 
LHSP Archives H. Poincaré/UMR 7117 CNRS. Alexandre.Klein@univ-nancy2.fr

Frédéric Dubois d'Amiens (1799-1873) was perpetual secretary of the Academy of
Medicine between 1847 and 1873. He remained famous in the history of the medicine
for his Praises as well as for his criticism of the animal magnetism. But people 
often do not know that he won in 1830 the competition of the Royal Society of
Medicine of Bordeaux concerning the distinction of hypochondria and hysteria.
Nevertheless, the winning report, published in 1833 under the title A
Philosophical history of hypochondria and hysteria, is the most accomplished work
of Dubois d'Amiens, both by the development of an unexpected historical and
philosophical method and by the new description which he gives of hypochondria.
It is from this work that we wish to pay tribute to Dubois d'Amiens.

PMID: 21936214  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

41. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Apr-Jun;45(2):127-9.

[Boerhaave and medication].

[Article in French]

Lafont O.

Author information: 
Faculté de médecine et de pharmacie, 22, boulevard Gambetta, 76183, Rouen Cedex

Herman Boerhaave (1668-1738) was a well known physician from Leiden, who was
essentially known in France for three of his books, which had been translated
into French, and had much success during thel8th century, Elements of Chemistry, 
Aphorisms and Materia Medica. There was also a fourth book, the Treatise of the
Virtue of Medicines redacted by his students from notes taken during his lessons,
which was translated into French in 1729. This volume, in in-80 format, of 471
pages, did not meet with the same success as his other books. It is anyway very
interesting, because it shows that Boerhaave, even if he were Professor of
Chemistry, was not at all a iatrochemist but behaved as an iatromechanicist.

PMID: 21936213  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Apr-Jun;45(2):119-25.

[Use of bitumen in medicine throughout the ages].

[Article in French]

Bourée P(1), Blanc-Valleron MM, Ensaf M, Ensaf A.

Author information: 
(1)Unité de Parasitologie, Hôpital Bicètre, 78, rue du Général Ledere, 94275 Le

Bitumen, which results of the storage of organic material and of the
decomposition in process of time, was used since ancient times for cosmetic, art 
and the caulk of boats. So, mummies were treated by bitumen to improve their
preservation. But bitumen was held to be useful to cure varying pulmonary,
digestive, ENT troubles and even to set fractures. Besides, bitumen was used to
realize the first photograph. In Iran, bitumen is yet used to improve the quality
of the skin, but mixed with to limit its toxicity.

PMID: 21936212  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

43. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Jan-Mar;45(1):85-90.

[From anencephaly to the myth of headless men].

[Article in French]

Stahl A(1), Tourame P.

Author information: 
(1)Espace Ethique Méditerranéen, Hôpital de la Timone, 264, rue Saint-Pierre, 13385 
Marseille Cedex 5.

Among ancient fanciful creatures, men without a head have often been represented 
since the end of the Middle-ages, especially during the Renaissance and until the
18th century. They are probably inspired from new-born anencephalic infants.

PMID: 21598581  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

44. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Jan-Mar;45(1):81-4.

[Arthur Fallot (1850-1911) and blue disease].

[Article in French]

Baille Y.

Author information: 
Association des amis du patrimoine médical de Marseille, Hôpital Salvator, 249,
boulevard Sainte-Marguerite, 13274 Marseille, cedex 09.

Arthur Fallot (1850-1911) described for the first time the so-called "maladie
bleue", or "blue disease". His discovery was published in Marseille Médical, and 
therefore remained little known. Present cardiologists know what they owe him and
therefore call "tetralogy of Fallot" this congenital heart condition.

PMID: 21598580  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

45. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Jan-Mar;45(1):71-80.

[Antoine Barthélémy Clot-Bey, a physician from Marseille founder of Western
medicine in Egypt].

[Article in French]

Ruf H.

Author information: 
Association des amis du patrimoine médical, Hôpital Salvator, 249, boulevard
Sainte-Marguerite, 13274 Marseille cedex 09.

Born in Grenoble in 1793 Clot was first a doctor in Marseilles with great success
and honour. But for unclear reasons he had to resign, and then decided to be
recruited in Egypt, where he was soon called "Clot-Bey" (Bey = officer)": he
contributed greatly to modernizing Egyptian medical system: he founded the School
of medicine, that of pharmacy, and that of obstetrics, and promoted hygiens and
variolisation. After Mehmet Ali abdicated he lost most of his influence, and left
Egypt for ever in 1858.

PMID: 21598579  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

46. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Jan-Mar;45(1):63-9.

[The hygienist Adrien Proust, his universe, plague and his ideas on international
health policy].

[Article in French]

Ségal A, Hillemand B.

Adrien Proust, Marcel's father, was a remarkable specialist of hygiens. He felt
very responsible for the fight against epidemics, and his part was decisive at
the Venice conference in 1896. In Marseilles and nearby islands quarantines were 
sill useful afterwards, especially in 1901.

PMID: 21598578  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

47. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Jan-Mar;45(1):57-62.

[Marseille and Jacques Daviel].

[Article in French]

Grangier R.

Jacques Daviel, soon an orphan, was educated by his uncle, Dr Sallou. When plague
burst in Southern France, he decided to help there, and realised it was good to
use "vinaigre des quatre voleurs" to chase fleas. He was taken as a chirurg at
the hôtel-Dieu in Marseilles and there developed a new technique to remove

PMID: 21598577  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

48. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Jan-Mar;45(1):51-6.

[The Caroline hospital on the Ratonneau island].

[Article in French]

François G.

Author information: 
Association des amis du patrimoine médical de Marseille, Hôpital Salvator, 249,
boulevard Sainte-Marguerite, 13274 Marseille cedex 09.

Yellow fever killed 20000 in Barcelona in 1821. In Marseilles, the mayor and
other authorities are afraid and decide to build a new hospital in Ratonneau
island. It will first be named after Princess Carolina, for dynastic reasons,
then after Pr Proust. It will always be underused, and will close in the end in
1941 after an epidemic of typhus.

PMID: 21598576  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

49. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Jan-Mar;45(1):45-50.

[Antoine Deidier, his experimental approach to the contagious nature of plague in
Marseille in 1720].

[Article in French]

Dutour O.

Born in 1670 Deidier became a medical doctor at the age of 21. The son-in-law, of
Vieussens, he took care of the inhabitants of Marseilles during the plague of
1720. A contagionist and an experimenter, he was considered as a strange
scientist by his colleagues. It is time now to rehabilitate his memory.

PMID: 21598575  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

50. Hist Sci Med. 2011 Jan-Mar;45(1):43-4.

[Painters as history witnesses (plague in Marseille in 1720)].

[Article in French]

Baille Y.

Author information: 
Hôpital Salvator, 249, boulevard Sainte-Marguerite, 13274 Marseille Cedex 09.

Plague in Marseilles in 1720: what about its painted representation?

PMID: 21598574  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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